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TNO多能爆炸模型指南 报告

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ONGERUBRICEERD ONGERUBRICEERD TNO report PML 1998-C53 Lange Kleiweg 137 P.O. Box 45 2280 AA Rijswijk The Netherlands Phone +31 15 284 28 42 Fax +31 15 284 39 58 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced and/or published by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without the previous written consent of TNO. In case this report was drafted on instructions, the rights and obligations of contracting parties are subject to either the Standard Conditions for Research Instructions given to TNO, or the relevant agreement concluded between the contracting parties. Submitting the report for inspection to parties who have a direct interest is permitted.  1998 TNO TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory Application of correlations to quantify the source strength of vapour cloud explosions in realistic situations. Final report for the project: ‘GAMES’ Date October 1998 Author(s) W.P.M. Mercx A.C. van den Berg D. van Leeuwen Assignor : Air Liquide, France BP International Ltd, United Kingdom ENEL Spa CRIS, Italy Elf Atochem, France Gaz de France, France Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom ICI, United Kingdom INERIS, France Norsk Hydro, Norway RIVM, The Netherlands Snamprogetti SpA, Italy Title : Ongerubriceerd Abstract : Ongerubriceerd Report text : Company Confidential Annexes A - G : Company Confidential No. of pages : 156 (incl. annexes, excl. documentation page) No. of annexes : 7 All information which is classified according to Dutch regulations shall be treated by the recipient in the same way as classified information of corresponding value in his own country. No part of this information will be disclosed to any party. The classification designation Ongerubriceerd is equivalent to Unclassified. TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory is part of TNO Defence Research which further consists of: TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory TNO Human Factors Research Institute Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)TNO report ONGERUBRICEERD PML 1998-C53 3 ONGERUBRICEERD 1 Summary Correlations were derived in the preceding GAME project to quantify the source strength of a vapour cloud explosion required to apply the Multi-Energy Method for the determination of blast characteristics. The correlations relate a set of para- meters describing the obstacle configuration in which the flammable cloud is present and the fuel, to a single value for the overpressure in the exploding vapour cloud. This project investigates the difficulties and problems encountered while applying the correlations to a number of realistic scenarios. The objective is to provide guidance and recommendations on how to overcome these difficulties and to decide on the actual values to be chosen for the parameters of the correlations in specific situations. The emphasis is on the determination of the parameters: ‘Volu- me Blockage Ratio’ and ‘Average Obstacle Diameter’. The main finding is that a safe approach in most situations is to apply the procedu- re of the new Yellow Book for the determination of the volume of the obstructed region in combination with the hydraulic average obstacle diameter and a flame path length equal to the radius of a hemisphere with a volume equal to the volume of the obstructed region. Lack of experimental data on specific items prevents the generation of more detai- led guidance. Some guidance is developed based on a theoretical approach, to assess the influence of the aspect ratio of the obstructed region and to quantify the separation distance between multiple explosion sources. It is recommended to perform an experimental research programme to generate the required data to improve and validate the suggested procedures.TNO report ONGERUBRICEERD 4 PML 1998-C53 ONGERUBRICEERD 2 Samenvatting In het voorafgaande GAME project zijn correlaties afgeleid waarmee de bronsterkte van een gasexplosie kan worden bepaald. Deze is nodig bij het toepas- sen van de Multi-Energie methode voor het bepalen van de blast-karakteristieken. De correlaties relateren een aantal parameters dat de obstakelconfiguratie waarin de gaswolk zich bevindt en de brandstof beschrijft, met een enkele waarde voor de overdruk in de exploderende gaswolk. In het onderhavige project wordt onderzocht welke moeilijkheden en problemen zich voordoen bij het toepassen van de correlaties op een aantal realistische situa- ties. Het doel is te komen tot adviezen en aanbevelingen om deze moeilijkheden aan te pakken en de parameters van de correlaties te kunnen quantificeren in speci- fieke situaties. Het belangrijkste resultaat is dat voor de meeste situaties een veilige aanpak bestaat uit het toepassen van de procedure uit het nieuwe Gele Boek voor het bepalen van het volume van ruimte waarin de obstakels zich bevinden in combinatie met de gemiddelde hydraulische obstakeldiameter en een vlampadlengte gelijk aan de straal van een halfbol die een volume heeft gelijk aan dat van de ruimte waarin zich de obstakels bevinden. Een gebrek aan experimentele gegevens betreffende enkele specifieke aspecten is de oorzaak voor het niet kunnen geven van meer gedetaileerde adviezen. Enkele adviezen zijn gegeven op basis van een theoretische beschouwing, voor het bepalen van de invloed lengte/breedte-verhouding van het volume waarin zich de obstakels bevinden en voor het bepalen van de scheidingsafstand tussen meerdere explosie- bronnen. Aanbevolen wordt om een experimenteel onderzoeksprogramma uit te voeren waarmee de vereiste gegevens worden verkregen zodat de adviezen verbe- terd en gevalideerd kunnen worden.TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PML 1998-C53 5 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL Contents Summary. 3 Samenvatting 4 1 Introduction . 7 2 Background and objectives . 9 2.1 Characterisation of source strength 9 2.2 Objectives and approach 11 3 Considerations on the application of the GAME correlation to realistic situations 13 3.1 Choice of a correlation. 13 3.2 Determination of V or . 14 3.3 Determination of D 16 3.4 Determination of L p . 17 3.5 Determination of S L . 19 4 AutoReaGas calculations 21 4.1 REAGAS . 21 4.2 BLAST. 22 4.3 Adopted approach 22 5 Application to the Chemical Plant case. 23 5.1 Description of case. 23 5.2 Reduction of problem size . 28 5.3 Application to reduced problem. 28 5.4 Application to another reduced problem 32 5.5 Combination of two obstructed regions. 35 5.6 Application to whole case 37 5.7 Influence of detail of obstacle description . 41 5.8 Overall evaluation of the Chemical Plant case 43 6 Application to the LNG Terminal case . 47 6.1 Description of case. 47 6.2 First impression of potential explosion severity 50 6.3 Application of correlation to obstructed subregion 1. 51 6.4 Application of correlation to obstructed subregion 2. 57 6.5 Application of the correlation to a combination of obstructed subregion 1, 2 and 5 . 61 6.6 Application of the correlation to a combination of obstructed subregions 1, 3, 6, 7, and 8. 63TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 6 PML 1998-C53 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 6.7 Blast outside obstructed regions 66 6.8 Overall evaluation of the LNG Terminal case . 70 7 Application to the Gas Processing case. 75 7.1 Description of case. 75 7.2 Test performed . 75 7.3 AutoReaGas calculation. 80 7.4 Application of correlation to obstructed region . 81 7.5 Blast outside obstructed region 82 7.6 Evaluation and conclusion . 82 8 Application to the Hydrogen case . 85 8.1 Description of case. 85 8.2 Application of correlation and ARG simulations. 85 8.3 Evaluation and conclusion . 89 9 Overall evaluation and guidance obtained 91 9.1 General. 91 9.2 The correlation and parameters 92 9.3 Guidance and remaining white spots . 94 9.4 Possible extensions of the blast charts . 98 10 Conclusions and recommendations . 99 11 References . 101 12 Acknowledgement. 103 13 Authentication . 105 Annexes: A Procedure for the determination of the boundaries of the obstructed region according to the Yellow Book B Procedure for the application of the Multi-Energy Method according to the Yellow Book C Application of procedure to determine obstructed region boundaries D Critical separation distances between obstructed areas E Application of GAME correlation to obstacle configurations of high aspect ratio F AutoReaGas pressure histories for the various situations simulated with the Chemical Plant case G AutoReaGas pressure histories for the various situations simulated with the LNG Terminal caseTNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PML 1998-C53 7 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 3 1 Introduction The Multi-Energy Method (MEM) is a rather simple and practical method of determining the blast parameters from a vapour cloud explosion. It is generally accepted that the concept of the MEM better represents the specific character of a vapour cloud explosion. MEM-like methods should therefore be preferred above practical methods based on TNT equivalency. The application of the MEM is hindered by a lack of guidance concerning the choice of the source strength. The GAME project: ‘Guidance for the Application of the Multi-Energy Method’ was performed to provide this additional guidance (Eggen, 1995). Very specific guidance was given in the form of correlations. A relation was derived for a set of parameters describing the obstacle configuration and the fuel, and the overpressure in the vapour cloud explosion. The follow-up GAMES project: ‘Guidance for the Application of the Multi-Energy Method, Second phase’ was initiated to investigate the applicability of the derived guidance to realistic cases. This report is the final report of the GAMES project. First, the background and objectives of the project are presented in Chapter 2. While applying the correlations to determine the source overpressure to be used in the Multi-Energy Method, values for the parameters of the correlation have to be chosen. This introduces a number of specific questions. Considerations with res- pect to the quantification of the parameters is the subject of Chapter 3. Also, a number of white spots are identified. Initial thoughts on approaches to deal with these deficiencies are presented in the same chapter. No realistic cases are available for which accurate enough data on overpressure occurring in a vapour cloud explosion exist. In order to be able to evaluate and to compare the results of the application of the correlations to realistic cases, a refe- rence was requested. This reference was obtained by applying a numerical code to generate data on overpressures. Chapter 4 briefly describes how that reference set of data was obtained. The correlations were applied to four realistic cases. The exercises that were per- formed for each case are described in the successive chapters, 5, 6, 7 and 8. In two of the cases, the Chemical Plant case in Chapter 5 and the LNG Terminal in Chapter 6, a number of exercises were performed on interesting subsets of the obstacle configuration. Chapter 7 deals with a large-scale experiment on a realistic obstacle configuration typical of a gas-processing site for which some data is available. Chapter 8 deals with a specific part of the LNG Terminal case, but filled with a flammable hydro- gen mixture in order to investigate the influence of reactivity.TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 8 PML 1998-C53 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL Each of the Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8 contains a final paragraph on the evaluation and conclusions for that specific case. Chapter 9 contains an overall evaluation of the exercises performed and provides guidance to determine values for the parameters of the correlations. Also the identi- fied white spots are discussed and guidance to deal with these white spots is pre- sented and discussed. Finally, Chapter 10 summarises the conclusions. Recommendations are given to generate specific experimental data in order to be able to develop models to take into account the influence of the aspect ratio of the obstacle configuration and of the separation distance between obstacle configurations.TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PML 1998-C53 9 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 4 2 Background and objectives 4.1 2.1 Characterisation of source strength In order to apply the blast charts of MEM, one requires values for two parameters characterising the source, namely the overpressure P 0 and the total combustion energy E which contributes to the explosion. Figure 1 shows the blast chart of the MEM. In order to determine the peak blast overpressure P s at a distance r from the centre of the explosion, a scaled distance r’ has to be calculated according to: 3 / 1 0 ) p E ( r r = ′ (1) in which p 0 is the ambient overpressure. The blast chart provides a value for the scaled blast overpressure P s ’. The blast overpressure P s is obtained by multiplying P s ’ by p 0 . The overpressure in the explosion P 0 , the pressure for scaled distance values smal- ler than r 0 ’ , determines which line to follow to choose the correct overpressure at the required scaled distance. 4.1.1 Overpressure Two correlations were derived in the GAME project to determine a value for the overpressure in a vapour cloud explosion. The overpressure is correlated to a set of parameters characterising the environment in which the vapour cloud is located and the vapour cloud itself. The difference between the two correlations is due to the type of confinement of the vapour cloud. For low ignition energy and no confinement (open, 3D), the expression is: 7 . 0 7 . 2 L 75 . 2 p 0 D S ) D / L VBR ( 84 . 0 P ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (2) with: P 0 the maximum explosion overpressure (bar) VBR the volume blockage ratio (-) L p length of the flame path (m) D typical diameter (m) S L laminar burning velocity of flammable mixture (m/s)TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 10 PML 1998-C53 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.1 1 10 100 scaled peak 'side on' overpressure P s ' combustion energy-scaled distance r' r o ' 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 95374-5.8a Figure 1: Blast chart MEM for overpressure. For low ignition energy and confinement between parallel plates (2D): 7 . 0 7 . 2 L 25 . 2 p 0 D S ) D / L VBR ( 38 . 3 P ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (3) 4.1.2 Combustion energy The recommendation to obtain a value for the combustion energy is to calculate the combustion energy of those parts of the flammable mixture which are located in obstructed regions. An evaluation of experimental data performed in GAME reve-TNO report COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL PML 1998-C53 11 COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL aled that the recommendation of taking 100% of the energy of the obstructed part of the cloud is conservative for low overpressures. The term ‘efficiency’ was introduced, defined as the percentage of the energy of the obstructed part of the cloud which contributes to the generation of blast. It appeared that the efficiency is lower than 20% for overpressures below 0.5 bar. 4.2 2.2 Objectives and approach The objective of the GAMES project is to apply the correlations to three realistic cases in order to investigate which problems are encountered while doing so. The correlations were derived from experim

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